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Evidence based on:
Hammal F, Chappell A, Wild TC, Kindzierski W, Shihadeh A, Vanderhoek A, et al. “Herbal” but potentially hazardous: an analysis of the constituents and smoke emissions of tobacco-free waterpipe products and the air quality in the cafés where they are served. Tob Control 2015; 24:290–7.
Macaron C, Macaron Z, Maalouf MT, Macaron N, Moore A. Urinary cotinine in narguila or chicha tobacco smokers. J Med Liban 1997; 45:19–20.
Maziak W, Rastam S, Shihadeh AL, Bazzi A, Ibrahim I, Zaatari GS, et al. Nicotine exposurein daily waterpipe smokers and its relation to puff topography. Addict Behav 2011; 36:397–9.
Maziak W, Ward KD, Eissenberg T. Interventions for waterpipe smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011;6:CD005549
Maziak, Wasim, T. Eissenberg, and K. D. Ward. Patterns of waterpipe use and dependence: implications for intervention development. Pharmacol Biochem. Behav 2005; 80:173–9.
T.M. Heffernan, T.S. O’Neill. Exposure to second-hand smoke damages everyday prospective memory. Addiction, 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2012.04056.x
Ward KD. The waterpipe: an emerging global epidemic in need of action Tobacco Control 2015;24:i1-i2