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Validating the use of the revised childbirth experience questionnaire in Hong Kong

BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Feb 15;22(1):126. 2022
Lok K.Y.W.*, Fan H.S.L., Ko R.W.T., Kwok J.Y.Y., Wong J.Y.H., Fong D.Y.T., Shek N.W.M., Ngan H.Y.S., Choi E.P.H.


To evaluate the psychometric properties of the traditional Chinese version of the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ 2.0) and assess the childbirth experiences of Chinese women.

A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Hong Kong from July 2020 to February 2021. In total, 975 mothers, who could read traditional Chinese and gave birth in 2020 or 2021, were included in the analysis. Data were fitted into the model proposed by the original developers using the confirmatory factor analysis. The data were then randomly split into training and validation sets for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Childbirth experiences were assessed. Factor structure, internal construct validity, internal consistency, and known-group validity were assessed.

The originally proposed CEQ2.0 model showed a poor fit. An exploratory factor analysis identified a revised four-factor model (CEQ2.0-R) on a randomly split sample, which showed a satisfactory fit (CFI=0.912; TLI=0.884; SRMR=.053; RMSEA=0.072) on the other split sample. The revised scale comprised 13 items and four domains: (1)"Own capacity" (6 items), (2) "General support" (3 items), (3) "Perceived safety" (2 items), and (4) "Professional support" (2 items). CEQ2.0-R showed high internal construct validity and reliability. It can differentiate between participants with different characteristics, including parity, oxytocin augmentation, and companionship during labour. The childbirth experiences of the participants were merely positive, and participants reported that more support from midwives is needed.

CEQ2.0-R can adequately describe the childbirth experiences of women in Hong Kong. The questionnaire is easy to be administer and can be used to assess several domains of the childbirth experiences. It may be useful to evaluate the aspects of support needed during childbirth.


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(*Corresponding Author)